Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS)

What is PBIS

Benefits of PBIS

Student Academic Outcomes

  • Improved academic outcomes: more likely to complete their courses; earned more credits towards graduation (Sinclair, Christenson, Evelo, & Hurley, 1998)
  • Improved attendance (Lehr, Sinclair, & Christenson (2004)
  • Increases in engaged instructional time (Barrett)
  • Improved academic achievement when accompanied by an effective instructional regimen (Bradshaw et al., 2010; Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010; McIntosh et al., 2006, 2008)
  • Schools that met the 80% School Evaluation Tool (SET) criteria had greater academic gains than those who did not meet criteria (Horner, Sugai, Eber, & Lewandowski, 2004)

Student Behavior and Social Outcomes

  • Up to 60% reduction in office discipline referral rates per year (and corresponding reduction in suspension and expulsion rates) (Barrett; Horner & Sugai, 2000; Skiba and Sprague, 2008; Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010)
  • Students in PBIS schools are 32% less likely to receive an office discipline referral (ODR) than those in non-PBIS schools (Barrett)
  • Decreases in peer rejection & bullying (Waasdorp, Bradshaw, & Leaf, 2012)
  • Improved student satisfaction (Lewis-Palmer, Horner, Sugai, Eber, & Phillips, 2002)
  • PBIS implementation reduces the rates of discipline referrals for all students, including students with IEPs. (Tobin, Horner, Vincent, Swain-Bradway, 2012)
  • Lower dropout rates, mobility, and enrollment (Sinclair, Christenson, & Thurlow, 2005)
  • Universal screeners (e.g. part of Universal prevention) may reduce disproportionate referrals for Special Education services (Raines et al., 2012)

School Staff Outcomes

  • Improved staff perceptions of school safety and atmosphere (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010)
  • Improved administrator perceptions of school safety (Schneider, Walker, & Sprague, 2000)
  • Improved staff satisfaction (Taylor-Greene et al., 1997)
  • Reduction in staff turnover rates (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010)
  • Increases in staff efficacy (Ross, Romer, & Horner, 2012)

Family Engagement

  • Increased family participation through school-wide positive behavior supports (Lewis, 2009)

Compiled by S. Moorthy (NYC PBIS) & L. Ficarra (NYS PBIS TAC)